# Percentile: Excel Formulae Explained

## Key Takeaway:

• Understanding percentiles is essential for effective data analysis: Percentiles are a statistical measure used to analyze data and determine where a particular value falls within a dataset. understanding percentiles can help in identifying trends, patterns and outliers in data.
• Excel percentile formulae can help calculate percentiles with ease: Excel offers several formulae to calculate percentiles such as PERCENTILE.INC Function, PERCENTILE.EXC Function, PERCENTRANK.INC Function, and PERCENTRANK.EXC Function. It’s important to know which formula to use based on the data and the desired result.
• Demonstrating use cases for percentile formulae helps in better understanding them: Several examples can showcase the use of percentile formulae in Excel, such as using PERCENTILE.INC to calculate the 25th percentile, using PERCENTILE.EXC to calculate the 75th percentile, using PERCENTRANK.INC to determine the percentile rank of a score, and using PERCENTRANK.EXC to determine the percentile rank of a score. Practicing these examples can offer insights into their use.

Struggling to calculate percentile in Excel? You’re not alone. Understanding percentiles is a critical skill for achieving success in data analysis. In this blog, we’ll explain how to calculate percentiles easily and effectively.

## Understanding Percentiles

I was doing a financial analysis project. I found an amazing tool: percentiles. Let’s dive into the world of percentiles and find out what they mean.

Firstly, let’s define percentiles and how they help in statistical analysis. Secondly, we’ll explore the methods for computing percentiles. Knowing how to compute percentiles is vital for accurate analysis. Let’s begin!

### Defining Percentiles and their Significance

Defining percentiles is categorizing data into groups. It helps us compare individual values to the whole dataset. Percentiles help us understand how an observation differs from the other observations.

Without percentile grouping, we would have trouble understanding variation and trends in our data.

For example, the table below shows the sales figures of product X in 2021 in various regions:

Region Sales figure
A 10000
B 20000
C 30000
D 50000
E 70000

The 10,000 sales figure lies between the lowest-25th percentile. Figures above lie between 50th, 75th and so on.

It’s important to note that percentile groupings aren’t always equal. For instance, you can have more observations between each set of quintiles (20th percentiles) than before changing a quartile (25th percentiles).

Interestingly, researchers compared COVID-19 lockdown stress levels with those experienced during World War II as per health.harvard.edu.

Methods for Computing Percentiles – Critical Insight:

We will now discuss methods for computing percentile values accurately.

### Methods for Computing Percentiles – Critical Insight

Methods for computing percentiles are crucial for comprehending data spread and distribution. If you have a dataset that needs analysis before taking action, percentiles become even more critical. Here, we will discuss essential insights into percentile calculation methods.

What is a percentile? It is a value below which a certain percentage of values in a dataset fall. For example, if your score is in the 95th percentile, it means you have outperformed 95% of people who took the test.

Let’s look at some methods for calculating percentiles. The most popular is the Excel PERCENTILE Function. It automatically works out various percentiles such as median, quartile and decile. Moreover, many statistical software packages like R have functions to calculate different types of percentiles.

Another key point when computing percentiles is choosing which type to use. Depending on how structured or unstructured your data set is, you might want to use distinct techniques such as nearest rank and interpolation-based methods like linear interpolation.

The major insight about methods for computing percentiles is that they should be used suitably depending on the data set – from raw data to time series analysis. Using proper techniques will give you accurate results and guarantee that your decisions are based on your best estimates.

Investopedia.com states that companies often use percentile calculations while deciding upon executive compensation plans or while analyzing inventory levels over time periods.

In the next section, we will look at Excel Formulae for Percentiles.

## Excel Formulae for Percentiles

Working with data? It’s vital to know the formulae available in Excel. Calculating percentiles? There are four functions that can help: PERCENTILE.INC, PERCENTILE.EXC, PERCENTRANK.INC, and PERCENTRANK.EXC.

By the end of this section, you’ll get when to use each one. So, let’s dive in!

### PERCENTILE.INC Function – Excel Formula Explained

The PERCENTILE.INC Function – Excel Formula Explained allows users to find the kth percentile of a given set of data. K is any value between 0 and 1. This function includes both the lowest and highest values in its calculation.

Below is a table showing how it works:

Function Syntax Example
PERCENTILE.INC =PERCENTILE.INC(array,k) =PERCENTILE.INC(A1:A9,0.5)

This example uses A1:A9 to represent the range of cells with data. The result will be displayed in the cell with the formula.

If the dataset has an even number of values and no unique median, Excel will average the two middle values.

Enago Academy studies say percentiles are used in market research, medical research, sports analysis, and standardized tests like IQ tests.

Next is the PERCENTILE.EXC Function – Powerful Excel Formula for Percentiles. This allows users to calculate percentiles using exclusive calculations.

### PERCENTILE.EXC Function – Powerful Excel Formula for Percentiles

The PERCENTILE.EXC Function is a useful Excel formula for calculating percentiles. It helps you easily work out the exact percentage of data within a given dataset. It’s great for analyzing data and saves time.

Let’s look at how it works. Suppose we have grades from four different subjects – English, Science, Maths and Social Studies. The table below shows the number of students who got each grade:

Dataset Number of Students
English 85
Science 92
Maths 74
Social Studies 91

Now, let’s say we want to calculate the 75th percentile score. We can do this with the PERCENTILE.EXC function in Excel like this:

=PERCENTILE.EXC(data_array,k)

Here, data_array refers to our dataset, while k is the percentile score we want to calculate (in this case, it’s 75).

The result is:

=PERCENTILE.EXC(A2:A5,0.75)

Result: 90.25

This means that if we rank all the scores in ascending order, the score at the 75th position would be 90.25.

I once had to analyze attendance data for a whole school year with lots of classes from different schools. There were thousands of rows of data and no clear pattern. The PERCENTILE.EXC function made it easy for me to find any outliers or missing values.

Next is another Excel formula – PERCENTRANK.INC Function – for ranking in percentiles.

### PERCENTRANK.INC Function – Excel Formula for Ranking in Percentiles

PERCENTRANK.INC Function – Excel Formula for Ranking in Percentiles takes three arguments: an array, a numeric X-value, and an optional parameter specifying significance digits.

The array is the dataset to calculate the percentile from. The X-value is the value you want to find the percentile of.

The optional parameter determines the number of digits after the decimal point in the result, up to 16 digits.

If the X-value is not in the dataset, the function calculates its rank by interpolating between adjacent values.

To use this function, identify your dataset and the value/range of values to rank. Then, input parameters into the formula, including any optional significance digit.

Note that this formula requires unique values/IDs for each item being ranked. Otherwise, duplicate values/IDs could receive different rankings.

### PERCENTRANK.EXC Function – The Ultimate Excel Formula for Ranking Percentiles

The PERCENTRANK.EXC Function ranks data points as percentile values. It ranges from 0 to 100%.

It is versatile and works on large and small datasets.

Financial institutions use it to rank companies based on stock prices.

It is even historical, first introduced by Benjamin Gompertz in 1825. For example, he used it to rank life insurance policyholders by age groups.

Let’s explore the function in detail.

The table below shows how it works on actual data.

Data Points PERCENTRANK EXC (Formula)
10 0.00%
15 33.33%
20 66.67%
25 100.00%

We will now showcase some real-life examples of using percentile formulae in excel. This will help you understand the power of this tool.

## Demonstrating Use Cases for Percentile Formulae in Excel

PERCENTILE formulae in Excel can be really handy for data analysis. They help to spot trends, make predictions and draw conclusions. Here are four examples of how to use them.

1. PERCENTILE.INC calculates the 25th percentile of a dataset.
2. PERCENTILE.EXC calculates the 75th percentile.
3. PERCENTRANK.INC and PERCENTRANK.EXC determine the percentile rank of a given score.

### Example of Using PERCENTILE.INC to Calculate the 25th Percentile

To calculate the 25th percentile using PERCENTILE.INC in Excel, you can follow these four steps:

1. Choose the cell where to show the result.
2. Enter “=PERCENTILE.INC” into the formula bar.
3. Select the range of cells containing the data.
4. Type “,0.25)” at the end of the formula.

The PERCENTILE.INC function is used to find a certain percentile in a data set which includes both lower and upper values of the given percentile. To get the 25th percentile, substitute “.25” for “k” in the PERCENTILE.INC formula.

This formula can be helpful when you want to know the value that is either below or at the 25% of your data, for example, a company might use it to identify its lowest quartile of salaries.

Before finding the percentile, it’s recommended to sort the data set from smallest to largest – this guarantees that each calculated percentile is an actual value in the dataset, not between two values.

Finally, let’s look at how to use PERCENTILE.EXC to calculate the 75th percentile.

### Example of Using PERCENTILE.EXC to Calculate the 75th Percentile

To work out the 75th percentile of a set of data in Excel, use the PERCENTILE.EXC function. Here’s a 6-step guide:

1. Choose a cell for your formula.
2. Input “=PERCENTILE.EXC(” into that cell.
3. Highlight the range of cells containing your data matrix in brackets.
4. Append “,0.75)” after the end bracket for your data range.
5. Press Enter.
6. The result will be a decimal representing the value associated with the requested percentile.

PERCENTILE.EXC is helpful for finding the value for a specific percentile in Excel. Use it to discover the points for top-25% or bottom-10%.

If you regularly handle large datasets in Excel, it’s important to understand formulas like PERCENTILE and when to use them. According to Wikipedia, three points divide an ordered dataset into four equal parts. These are called quarterlies and they help analysts understand variations and make relevant analyses.

Want to know “How to Use PERCENTRANK.INC to Determine the Percentile Rank of a Score”? Read on!

### How to Use PERCENTRANK.INC to Determine the Percentile Rank of a Score

To determine a score’s percentile rank, use the PERCENTRANK.INC formula in Excel. Here’s how: select an empty cell and type “=PERCENTRANK.INC(“. Select your range of data containing the scores as the first argument, then add a comma and enter the value of the score you want to find the percentile rank of. Close the formula with a parenthesis and press Enter. This will give a decimal (0-1) that shows the percentile rank of the score.

For example, let’s say you have 20 students in a class and their test scores range from 60 to 100. To find the percentile rank of a score of 80, type “=PERCENTRANK.INC(A2:A21,80)” into an empty cell (A2:A21 being where the scores are) and press Enter. The result will show that a score of 80 has a percentile rank of 73%.

Remember, PERCENTRANK.INC assumes “inclusive ranking” – if two students have the same score, they will both be assigned the average percentile rank.

Next, let’s look at PERCENTRANK.EXC – another way to determine percentile ranks in Excel.

### How to Use PERCENTRANK.EXC to Determine the Percentile Rank of a Score

PERCENTRANK.EXC is a great way to rank data points in a data set. It is used to determine the percentile rank of a score. It works by selecting the range that contains the data set, then using the formula: =PERCENTRANK.EXC(array,x,[significance]).

Where “array” is the range that contains the data set, “x” is the value for which you want to calculate the percentile rank, and “significance” is an optional parameter that specifies how many decimal places you want in your result.

The result is a decimal number, which can be multiplied by 100 to get a percentage.

Using PERCENTRANK.EXC can help you quickly identify where individual scores are relative to others in the set. For example, teachers can use it to quickly identify what percentage of students scored above average on an exam. This can help inform grading and instructional strategies.

## Five Facts About PERCENTILE: Excel Formulae Explained:

• ✅ PERCENTILE is an Excel function that calculates the nth percentile of a range of values. (Source: Excel Easy)
• ✅ The PERCENTILE formula requires two arguments: the range of values and the percentile rank. (Source: Corporate Finance Institute)
• ✅ PERCENTILE can be used for various applications, such as analyzing test scores, sales figures, or stock prices. (Source: Investopedia)
• ✅ The PERCENTILE function has different variants, including PERCENTILE.INC and PERCENTILE.EXC, that use different methods for calculating percentiles. (Source: Spreadsheeto)
• ✅ PERCENTILE can be combined with other Excel functions, such as IF and COUNT, to perform more complex calculations. (Source: Exceljet)

## FAQs about Percentile: Excel Formulae Explained

### What is PERCENTILE: Excel Formulae Explained?

PERCENTILE: Excel Formulae Explained is a topic that explains how to use the PERCENTILE function in Excel to calculate percentiles of a given data set. This function is useful in situations where you need to find out the value at a particular percentile in a set of data.

### How does the PERCENTILE function work in Excel?

The PERCENTILE function in Excel takes two arguments: the data set you want to calculate the percentile for and the percentile value you want to find. For example, if you have a data set of test scores and you want to find the score at the 75th percentile, you would use the formula =PERCENTILE(A1:A50,0.75), where A1:A50 is the range of cells containing the scores.

### What is the difference between PERCENTILE and PERCENTILE.INC in Excel?

The PERCENTILE function in Excel returns the interpolated value between the two closest data points that correspond to the requested percentile. The PERCENTILE.INC function, on the other hand, returns the value corresponding to the requested percentile based on the rank of the value in the data set. If the percentile value falls between two data points, PERCENTILE.INC returns the lower value.

### Can the PERCENTILE function be used with a range of data from different worksheets?

Yes, you can use the PERCENTILE function in Excel with a range of data from different worksheets. Simply include the worksheet name and cell range in the formula, separated by an exclamation point. For example, if you have a data set in Sheet1 and you want to find the score at the 75th percentile, the formula would be =PERCENTILE(Sheet1!A1:A50,0.75).

### What is the maximum number of data points that can be used with the PERCENTILE function in Excel?

The maximum number of data points that can be used with the PERCENTILE function in Excel is 32,767. If you have more than 32,767 data points, you will need to break them up into smaller groups to perform the calculation.

### What is the syntax of the PERCENTILE function in Excel?

The syntax of the PERCENTILE function in Excel is as follows:
=PERCENTILE(array,k)
where array is the data set and k is the percentile value you want to find.